Installing VMware tools on Debian and Ubuntu is not as easy as on Windows but following a the steps below should make fairly easy.
These instructions should work for VMware ESXi, VMware Workstation, and VMWare Fusion.
Login to Debian and switch to root user
Check if required packages are installed
We need to check for gcc, make, and linux-header
$ apt-cache search gcc make
$ apt-cache search linux-header
If the following packages are not installed run the Install the Required Packages commands
Install the Required Packages
$ apt-get install gcc make